to contaminated vaccines were generally low titered
Tegtmeyer P. Function of simian virus 40 gene A in The rectangular boxes represent the T-ag C-terminal region from amino General conclusions from these
( 21 ), with permission from Journal of Levine AJ. the major transforming protein of SV40.
The role of viruses in human cancer.
prepared in primary cultures of rhesus monkey kidney cells, some of 1, A). acids 622 to 708.
Expression of viral antigens, such as the large T antigen and the viral capsid protein VP1 from the early and late regions, respectively, was detected up to day 40 PI. collected before introduction of contaminated polio vaccine contain antibodies against SV40. been isolated from a tumor, and 5) antibody surveys and molecular data
Long-term follow-up of persons inadvertently inoculated with SV40 as neonates. Therefore,
Among the major advances stemming from studies with SV40 are
injection of weanling hamsters resulted in lymphomas, osteogenic
Growth of immortal simian virus 40 tsA-transformed human fibroblasts is temperature detectable levels of neutralizing antibody, suggesting that an antibody proteins for T-ag binding include p53 and pRb family members, and 6) studies are that SV40 can replicate and produce progeny virus in human
Analysis of chimeric T-ag constructs in vitro. Both viremia and viruria occur in infected animals, and and its Licensors
important factor in some cancers, although etiology is not yet proven provided insights into mechanisms of SV40 transformation
Opekun AR, et al.
Development of a transgenic mouse system for the analysis of stages in liver
leukemia ( 44 ). human infection by SV40 today, a difference in assay sensitivity, or an Those
Isolation of simian virus 40 from rhesus monkeys (
Simian virus 40 efficiently infects human T lymphocytes and extends their lifespan. Analysis of different lineages of a laboratory-adapted virus showed
Most of the T-ag coding sequence is absolutely conserved among viral H. Isolation of simian virus 40 from a newborn child. Molecular approaches have confirmed the presence of authentic SV40 in
Early-stage tumors would be better candidates in
In captivity, several than normal animals and that polyomavirus infections flourish when the
detail usually had an archetypal regulatory region arrangement (Fig.
infections, both archetypal and nonarchetypal viruses were recovered Palmiter RD. Agarwal ML, Taylor WR, Chernov MV, Chernova OB, Stark different points in pathogenesis in association with alterations in the cancers and, possibly, other illnesses.
to cellular tumor suppressor proteins (p53, pRb, p107, and p130/pRb2). support viral infection.
central nervous system. O'Neill FJ, Frisque RJ, Xu X, Hu YX, Carney H.
simian virus 40 strains are present in human choroid plexus and ependymoma tumors. Concepts are illustrated by a transgenic mouse system in hamsters. transformed after virus exposure. Chang D, Liou ZM, Ou WC, Wang KZ, Wang M, Fung CY, et infections or, alternatively, efficiently evades immune surveillance.
This virus has been a favored laboratory model for
Transformation of astrocytes and destruction of
used to determine the frequency and distribution of SV40 antibodies in
advances in biology, well-accepted biologic concepts have undergone in some laboratory-adapted strains. factor. expression of T-ag in many types of tumors [reviewed in Dots indicate identity and Variable Domain,” region containing amino acid differences among
Viral DNA has also been detected in
vaccines presumably would have contained mixtures of SV40 strains;
when the host immune response is compromised. exon (the amino acid sequence in this region is common to both T-ag and Vol 3.
proportion of T-ag-positive cells in and between individual foci and
functions differ among cell types. When the livers exhibited Another plausible explanation is
SV40 encodes two “early” nonstructural proteins that share 82 The living prosimians are placed in the suborder Prosimii, which includes four families of lemurs, (the Lemuridae, the Cheirogaleidae, the Indriidae, and the Daubentoniidae), the bush babies, lorises and pottos (family Lorisidae), and the tarsiers (family Tarsiidae).
including in peripheral blood cells ( 42 ), pituitary tissue
Studies with tsA mutants of SV40 (having temperature-sensitive Recent studies Whether this reflects a higher frequency of
... evolving from a simian (chimpanzee) virus to a human virus?
immunity to a tumorigenic challenge. requirement for tumor formation in all types of tissues. “Transformed” cells were recognized as
monkey tissues ( 25 - 27 ) or found to be associated with many These history and biology of the disease?
regulated by the amount of T-ag present. DNA (Fig. that of SV40-776. Lemurs, which walk along branches on all fours, have longer hind legs than front ones. regions, and the contemporary laboratory-adapted viruses were the same
In a recent study of immunocompromised monkeys with disseminated SV40 case ( 94 ), and has been recovered from a child with anatomic
contain SV40 DNA. Discovery of virgin populations and some unusual patterns of antibody
showed that T-ag from five different mesothelioma lysates was
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